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Searching for your Literature Review: Evaluate

Passing the CRAAP test

Check if the results meet your requirements:

  • does it match the type of information you required?
  • does it represent the point of view you need?
  • is it from a primary, secondary or tertiary source?
  • is the information recent enough?

When evaluating your results, think about:

Currency How current does the information need to be? Do you need to use information published in the last five years or are older, seminal works fine to use?
Relevance Does the information found answer your question? Do you understand the content and is it at the right level for your purpose?
Authority What are the author's qualifications? Are they linked to a particular organisation such as a university, research institute or government department?
Accuracy Is evidence given for the research undertaken? Can you verify the information presented by using other sources? Is there a bibliography or references given?
Purpose Is it trying to communicate research, persuade you or sell you something? It is expressing an opinion, or is it balanced and objective?


For more help see:

Refine your results

Not finding relevant results or need to find more? You should:

  • check your spelling
  • Consider using alternative keywords (synonyms) e.g. confectionery OR chocolate
  • use alternative spellings such as organization OR organisation
  • use truncation symbols or wildcards to capture all forms of your keywords e.g. institut* OR organi?ation
  • check that you have used connectors correctly
  • search other databases

Finding too many results? You should:

  • add another concepts and any alternative keywords
  • only search across particular fields e.g. title and abstract
  • limit your search by date range or publication type

After conducting your searches, display the search results and evaluate them to see if they match your topic.


You may think you have copyright covered. You are referencing everything and attributing images you are using. However when it comes to making your research 'public' you may need to do a little more. Take a look at the following resources: